You can still file chapter 13 bankruptcy while on un-employment

Chapter 13 bankruptcy is often called a payment plan. In chapter 13 bankruptcy the debtor will make a monthly payment for either 3 or 5 years. The amount of the payment is reasonable based on the debtor’s income and expenses and not on how much debt the debtor has.

The debtor is required to have income. Unemployment income is enough to file. Of course unemployment does not last forever so the debtor filing with unemployment alone will need another source of income by the time unemployment runs out.